Origin of Legal Education

Legal education is usually obtained through a law degree. The professional degree awarded by U.S. law schools is the Juris Doctor (J.D.). Prospective attorneys who have earned the J.D. (or other appropriate qualification) must meet additional state-specific requirements to be admitted to the U.S. Bar. The Japanese Ministry of Justice opened the Faculty of Law at the University of Tokyo in 1877 (renamed Imperial University in 1886). To enrol at the University of Tokyo, students had to complete ten to fifteen years of compulsory schooling; Acceptance was therefore only accessible to a small elite. The law program produced politically reliable graduates to quickly fill administrative positions in government, also known as senior civil servants (koto bunkan), and to serve as judges and prosecutors. Faculties of private law were opened around 1880.

These lacked the public funds made available to the University of Tokyo, so the quality of education lagged behind. Students only had to pass an exam to enroll in private law schools, so many of them had not completed high school. Private law schools produced a large proportion of lawyers from the private sector, as their graduates were often not eligible to apply for government positions. Many law schools have begun to supplement classroom training with hands-on experience. Day school programs allow students to earn academic credit for unpaid work with a judge, government agency, or community legal aid office. Several law schools also have legal clinic programs in which students counsel real clients under the supervision of a professor, such as the University of Massachusetts School of Law. The City University of New York School of Law and the Florida Coastal School of Law are some of the few law schools that require students to take legal clinic courses. Similarly, Northeastern University School of Law and Savannah Law School use cooperative education to provide their students with pre-graduation work experience at the law firm. Washington and Lee University School of Law has completely overhauled its curriculum to require students to take internship courses, internships, and clinics during their final year of law school to gain real-world preparation experience. Practitioners can complete a Master of Laws through coursework to gain greater specialization in an area in which they practice. In many common law countries, a graduate degree in law is common and is expected for lawyers.

In addition, the integration of practical skills is beneficial for practitioners pursuing higher education to better prepare them in their respective fields of law. [5] Most law schools outside the graduate level are more regionally oriented and often have very strong regional links to these postgraduate opportunities. For example, a graduate student from a lower law school may find opportunities in that school`s «home market»: the law market, which contains many alumni of that school, where most of the school`s networking and career development energies are concentrated. In contrast, in terms of employment opportunities, an advanced law school may be limited to the vast geographic area fed by the law school. To become a lawyer in Serbia, students must graduate from an accredited law school. The study of the first level lasts four years (eight semesters), after which it is possible to enroll in master`s and doctoral programs. To become a student at the Faculty of Law, a candidate must pass the admission test. Practical training for students is organized in local and international courts and moot court competitions. A lawyer must pass the national bar examination to become a lawyer, judge or prosecutor. To pass the bar exam, it is sufficient to complete the 4-year study program and have some professional experience (for example, as a paralegal), but most lawyers have also obtained a master`s degree in law before passing the bar exam.

Legal education in the Philippines generally follows the following path: In South Africa,[28][29] the LL.B. is the universal legal qualification for admission and registration as a lawyer. Since 1998, LL.B. programs can be taken directly at the bachelor`s level; at the same time, the LLB. will continue to be offered post-gradually and can then be accelerated based on the bachelor`s degree. The programme lasts between two and four years[30] (see Australia, above). See Bachelor of Laws § South Africa. In England and Wales, law can be studied in the form of a bachelor`s degree or a postgraduate diploma in law, where students take the common professional examination.

After obtaining the required degree to attend certain professional courses and complete a period of on-the-job training before qualifying as a lawyer, legal executive or lawyer. The Bar Professional Training Course is considered one of the most challenging degrees and is currently the most expensive degree related to law. In the 1850s, many private schools emerged from a practitioner who hired several apprentices, founded a school, and provided practical legal training, as opposed to those offered at universities that offered training in theory, history, and philosophy of law. [32] Universities assumed that skills acquisition would take place in practice, while private schools focused on practical skills during training. [33] In 2004, the Japanese Parliament passed a law authorizing the establishment of law schools (法科大学院, hōka daigakuin) offering a J.D. or Hōmu Hakushi (法務博士). The 2006 bar exam was the first in Japan`s history to require a law school degree as a prerequisite. In the past, most of those who passed the exam had earned bachelor`s degrees from «elite» universities such as the University of Tokyo, Kyoto University, or Hitotsubashi University, even though there were no educational requirements. With this new law school system came a new bar exam with a transition rate of 40-50%, which is limited by a numerical quota. Candidates are now limited to taking the exam three times per five-year period. Despite the much higher bar pass rate with the new exam, about half of Japanese law graduates are never admitted to practice because of quotas. The new system also reduced the apprenticeship period at the Institute for Legal Research and Training to one year.

[8] Unlike training in other professions, law school generally consists of only one classroom. (For example, medical school in the United States is traditionally a two-year classroom environment and two years of «rotations,» or hands-on experience in education.) Although some countries, such as Germany and France, require training with a practicing attorney, it is not required in any jurisdiction in the United States. For this reason, many law students complete an understanding of the legal doctrines necessary to pass the bar exam, but without actual practical experience or knowledge of day-to-day legal practice. In the MacCrate report, the American Bar Association urged U.S. law schools to focus on a practical approach. Law degree programs are considered graduate programs in the Philippines. Therefore, admission to law schools requires completion of a bachelor`s degree with a sufficient number of credits or credits in certain specialties. In the Philippines, legal education is regulated and supervised by the Council of Legal Education, an independent body legally established and chaired by a retired member of the Supreme Court or Court of Appeals. Its first president was Judge Hilarion Aquino. The members of the Council are a representative of law professors, a representative of law deans and a representative of the Commission de l`enseignement supérieur.

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